Name: Tran Phuong Uyen_ Selena
Grade: 10
Geothermal Energyexternal image clip_image002.jpg
There are many ways to have clean energy like: using wind energy, solar energy, water energy, but geothermal energy is the most common and productive way to get energy. Getting geothermal energy is the method of capturing heat from the Earth to produce energy is a new way of using energy without hurting the environment, it’s called geothermal energy. Geothermal is very useful, it produce energy with large amount and never end, because the earth never stop giving out heat. Unlike wind or solar energy, geothermal energy doesn’t have any limit or barrier because the energy resources are available 24/7. Beside, geothermal energy is very easy to get. So many countries have chosen this method to produce electricity for their country. And the U.S makes the most geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is very useful, it use to heat and cool buildings and swimming pool, it’s also can replace a huge amount of polluted energy and so save the environment.
flash_steam_powerplant.gifdrysteam.gifMaking geothermal energy is to capture the hot steam from down under the earth’s crust. When the water flows from the earth make its way down close to the hot rock (lava), it turns the water into steam. The hot water can reach to over 148ºC. This is how it works in a geothermal power plan. Steam rotates a turbine and it activates a generator and produce electricity. However, there are 3 different ways of getting geothermal energy. The first way is dry steam; it means we make hot water steam go down directly from underground wells to a power plant. And the largest resource of getting this dry steam is in Geyser, California. And the next method is called flash steam. Getting flash steam is the most common way, it use reservoirs of water that are hotter than
182ºC. Then hot water flows up into the wells in the ground and some of it turn to steam. Those steams are separated from water and they use to turn the turbine and makes energy. And the last method is to use the binary cycle. These plant usually use the water that have heat about 107-182ºC. The water vapor that release use to boil a working fluid, they usually use an organic substance that can be boiled easily, which vaporizes in a heat exchange and its use to turn a turbine.
Picture 1: geothermal power plant
Picture 2: dry steam:
Picture 3: flash steam:
Picture 4: binary cycle:

March 24, 2010

Summary about Biomass
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The article is about biomass which is agricultural waste used as a source of fuel. Biomass fuel can be in solid, liquid, gas ... and burned to release the energy. Wood, crops and crop waste, wastes of plant, and animal matter are some types of biomass. Especially, wood and wood charcoal provide a significant portion of energy in the world. People have used them for heating and cooking for thousands of years. Currently, wood is still used as common fuel in developing countries. When you burn sticks or twigs to make fire to cook meals that is a use of biomass.
Benefits of biomass:
1. Economic benefits:
· Rural Development is one of the main benefits of the BIOMASS development. It creates jobs for workers (production, harvesting ...)
· Promote the development of industrial energy, industrial production equipment metabolism energy (this phrase is made of all nouns!)
· Reduce dependence on oil and coal, diversify fuel supply.
2. Environmental Benefits:
· This is an energy source that provides many benefits to the environment.
· Biomass can be recycled.
· Biomass utilizes waste as fuel. It turns garbage into useful products.

Burning biomass and CO2 emits S and ash, but significantly lower compared to bituminous coal. We can balance emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere by planting trees to absorb them. Therefore, biomass is an alternative. The use of biomass should not increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Thus, the development of biomass reduces the adversity of climate change, the phenomenon of acid rain, and the pressure on landfills
If using wood as a source of fuel will cause negative impacts on the environment, logging leads to deforestation, soil erosion, desertification and other serious consequences.
I think we should use biomass energy, because it helps us save cost significantly when we used source energy, and it also contributes to environmental protection. When I choose this topic, I think biomass hadn’t important and special. But after I research in the internet, I know it is one of the very fuels we need to improve the environment and we should use it instead of using gas stove.

  1. California Energy Commission. “Chapter 10: Biomass Story.” Energy Quest. April 22, 2002. March 24, 2010.
  2. Alliance for Rural Electrification. “Biomass Development Strategies.” Alliance for Rural Electrification. March 24, 2010.
  3. Union of Concerned Scientists. “How Biomass Energy Works.” Clean Energy. March 24, 2010. ----

Jeremy – 3rd period
March 24th, 2010

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Biomass is the process of reusing waste materials or living organism to create energy. This article will talk about the biomass such as its resources, how it works and its positive and negative sides.
The main resources of biomass are wood, waste, garbage, landfill gases and alcohol fuels. The purpose of biomass is to reuse these materials to create energy such as electricity. So, the main resources would be garbage or something that has already been used. How does biomass work? Biomass process is like a circle. First, people will burn the resources, the steam that was formed turns turbines and then into generator to create electrical power. Like other energy type, biomass has both positive and negative sides. Burning waste openly will produce greenhouse gases, biomass help reducing greenhouse gas emissions by burning them properly. In addition, biomass doesn’t produce sulfur which can cause acid rain. Biomass can pollute the air during the burning process but not as much as fossil fuel. However, if biomass is not used properly, it can cause indoor pollution that can lead to harmful health effects.
I think biomass is a great way to take full advantage of waste things and carbon dioxide. Electricity is a very important to every family. It is pretty interesting to see how you can use garbage to create electrical power that can support many families.

Biomass-energy from organic materials
Positively clean energy – biomass
How biomass energy works
Biomass? Maybe…

Nguyen Hoang Phuong Uyen- Belly
Period: 2
Date: March 19th 2010
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What are the benefits of BIOMASS?

Biomass is one of the energies that benefit to the social and environment. It is everything that is alive, which contains carbon; the atoms of hydro, oxygen, nitrogen. Firstly, Biomass is found in the trees, crops, plants, animals; this means people get biomass everyday. Secondly, Biomass’s energy is gotten from the sun, and the plants take sun’s energy through their roots, leaves. Therefore, when people eat biomass, they grow; and when they burn biomass, they make heat. Next, Biomass is renewable, that means can be made again and again. With this function, people can grow more plants that contribute into the world’s pollution. Moreover, the Biomass can create the electricity. A good example of this is people burn garbage to make electricity, instead of leave them on the land. When the garbage is burned, it may cause some bad smell, but it saves the land’s space. Nevertheless, burning garbage does not pollute as much as burning coal and oil. Fifth, Biomass also makes biogas, which people can use it to cook food and light their homes. In conclusion, Biomass contributes lots of benefits which can prevent the environment pollution and the human’s life either.


Name: Stinger-Tran Huu Nguyen Khang
Period: 2
Date: March 18, 2010
Teacher: Mr. Brent Bly


This energy is different from the other energy which is made by coal, oil, gasoline, fossil fuel, etc. Geothermal energy is the energy that emits from the Earth which comes from the magma, radioactive decay of uranium thorium and potassium. The natural heat of the Earth creates geothermal resources. For example, the water from the natural such as rain, home water, etc, which are released out on the ground, seeps and store in the underground reservoir. Through many years, the magma heats this water until it becomes a superheated fluid. People created production wells which are drilled 5000 – 10000 feet below the surface of the earth to take this superheated fluid up. This process uses the crystallizer –reactor clarifier technology in which this fluid is turned into steam and the solid from this fluid is removed. From now on, this process is separated into two branches. Firstly, the steam is used to drive the turbine in order to produce electricity, which we almost use today. Secondly, the rest part of geothermal fluids such as solid, etc, are injected back into the reservoir to reuse.

Name: Gigi-Nguyen Hoang Thuc My
Period 2
Date: March 18, 2010
Teacher: Mr. Bly



The components of the Earth have a lot of interesting things and amazing numbers. It is about 4,000 miles from the surface to the center of the Earth, and the deeper you go, the hotter it gets. There is an outer layer of the Earth called the crust; the crust is about 35 miles thick and it keeps us away form the hot area inside of the Earth. Heat’s movement always goes from hot areas to cold areas, the Earth’s heat flows from its interior toward the surface. This outward heat from Earth’s interior drives convective motion in the mantle rock which in turn drives plate tectonic. Inside the Earth, there are much more components such as magma. Magma is created by pressure that makes temperature and water content that cause melting. Where plates hit, one plate is generally forced beneath the other. When magma reaches and touches the surface of the Earth, it can build up volcanoes, but most of the magma stays well underneath the ground and create some hot rock. Cooling can take from 5,000 to more than 1 million years. These shallow areas of relatively elevated crustal heat have high temperature gradients. Other volcanic chains form along mid-ocean or where plates move apart - in places such as Iceland, or over magma plumes continuously ascending from deep in the mantle such as the Hawaiian Islands and Yellowstone.


Bui Anh Kiet-Watson

Period 4
March 19th, 2010


Biomass simply rocks, it’s a renewable energy resource type that efficiently use from plants, or alcohol, trash… that it was mainly use to produce electricity & heat.
There are a huge uses and resources from biomass that we can use for a long time, such as making biodiesel (fuel liquid can use in engines), direct combustion (burning organic matter), pyrolysis (different gases created by heating organic compound), Anaerobic digestion (making methane) and Fermentation…
There are huge advantages that biomass give us in the environment (displaceable of fossil fuels, reduce air pollution & acid rain, recycling CO2 in atmosphere) as well as economic (increasing of biomass industry, increase employment in agriculture, forestry… and feedstock with a wide spread of industries). But in the other hand, biomass also has disadvantages: using plants to replace fossil fuels decreases the capacity to fix CO2 in the environment…
Biomass is an awesome energy resource, I must admit. It has a great potential, now and in the future, it’s renewable, friendly to nature and work efficiently. I believe that this will be one of our main energy in the future not so far. Then, we’ll be thankful to what biomass benefits us. Overall, I think that biomass is an excellent energy type and choices for using energy, that it can be use for a really long time, and hopefully by then, greenhouse effect won’t be a big matter to us.

T.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, E. Neuhauser, E. Gray, C. Demeter, C. Lindsey, J. Jarnefeld, D.J. Aneshansley, R. Pellerin and S. Edick (October 15-19, 2000). "Developing a Willow Biomass Crop Enterprise for Bioenergy and Bioproducts in the United States". Proceedings of Bioenergy 2000. Adam's Mark Hotel, Buffalo, New York, USA: North East Regional Biomass Program. OCLC 45275154.
2009 State Of The World, Into a Warming World,Worldwatch Institute, 56-57, Isbn 978-0-393-33418-0

Danny (1st)
Energy Project


The word geothermal comes from Greek – geo for earth, therme for heat. It uses the heat inside the Earth's core in order to convert it into energy. Geothermal can be found in volcanoes, geysers, hot springs and fumaroles (holes where volcanic gases are released). But geothermal reservoirs have the most – the Ring of Fire, surrounding the Pacific Ocean, has the most of. Geothermal are generated by magma. The subterranean water and rocks absorbed the intense heat of magma. The deeper you go underground, the higher the temperature it will be.
Geothermal has plenty of usages, using heat and steam for many purposes. It used to make natural hot water like hot springs, and the hot water on the Earth's surface is pumped directly to houses by many people today for bathing, believing the water has natural healing power. Industrial uses include milk pasteurizing, food dehydration and gold mining. 95% of people living in Reykjavik, Iceland's capital city, uses geothermal energy to heat up houses and for bathing.
Geothermal is considered a limitless and clean natural resource. It is getting more popular in the U.S due to its considerably low emission level, unlike fossil fuel. It releases less than 1% of the carbon dioxide emissions of a fossil fuel plant. It is also renewable because after the steam and heat has been used, they are injected back underground.

I choose this article because it tells me so much about geothermal, a natural resource that Vietnam doesn't use and I have no knowledge about it. Thanks to this article, I can see that people should use geothermal as natural resource instead of fossil fuel. Especially countries that has many volcanoes like Iceland, New Zealand, Chile, Japan, Hawaii, Indonesia and so on. It also surprises me by its cleanliness, everlasting characteristics of geothermal. I believe that in the future, many countries will use this resource and eventually dramatically changes the world – a better climate and a cleaner Earth.

- (picture)

Sasha Tloan Kien
1st period
Energy article summary


Biomass is a great non-fossil energy resource that has been using for thousands of years and has many benefits to our life. Even though biomass is an unfamiliar energy resource to most of us besides wind and solar, it is the oldest renewable energy resource and has great impacts on our life environmentally. It’s been proven that biomass is able to supply 15 times more than the total energy that being used by the United States and even more. The energy is formed when biological organisms are burnt because in photosynthesis, chlorophyll produces carbohydrates which will release carbon dioxide, water and energy when it’s burnt. However, burning is the tradition way to take energy out of biomass, nowadays, with the help of technology advances, it could be converted to liquid fuels,…different forms of energy resources. In addition, biomass also indirectly produces electricity since people use the heat taken from it for electricity production. There are two main types of biomass: growing plants which includes either natural living plants or plants that are specifically planted for energy generation; and the other one is plants’ residues. Plants which being used for energy purpose are called energy crops or power crops and are planted in large quantities like food crops. In energy crops, the two best ones are tree (especially corn) and grass. Since trees grow fast, perennially and are replantable; grass is all over anywhere and easy to grow. Moreover, other crops such as oil plants-soy bean, sunflower and more are also used to produce fuel oil. Besides planted crops, plants and animal waste as well as garbage and sewage from forestry, agriculture and developing cities could be also used to produce energy. The most obvious evidence for the benefits of biomass energy is that it accounted for 1.2 percent of the U.S’ total electric sales in a previous year. However, if more advanced technology can be accessed, the amount of energy would raise and for now, we’re using three main methods of producing energy that are thermochemical, biochemical and chemical. To sum up, biomass energy has many benefits for our environment such as helping to reduce and prevent air, water pollution; increasing soil quality as it reduces erosion and enhancing wildlife habitat. It even helps to secure energy resource and develop a city economically. Nonetheless, using it without carefully controlled, it may cause environmental pollution.

In my opinion, since one of biomass energy’s resource is residues, in the environment organ there must be a branch that connects with slaughter-house, hospitals,…where have a lot of wastes being sacked daily in order to store them for energy production. Besides, it also helps to economize and prevent pollution. Moreover, because in the process of producing energy, carbon dioxide is released which probably pollutes our habitat; the place that is used to convert biomass energy should be located far away from the cities. In general, this article gives me the most detailed information about biomass and its impacts on the environment as well as our life.

"How Biomass Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists." Homepage | Union of Concerned Scientists. Web. 18 Mar. 2010. <>.
"Renewable Energy - a Knol by Partha Das Sharma." Knol - a Unit of Knowledge: Share What You Know, Publish Your Expertise. Web. 18 Mar. 2010. <>.


biomass.giftypes-of-biomass.jpgNAME: Zack Vu
Period: 4
Date: March 19, 2010

-This article will talk about biomass. Biomass is a renewable energy source. In a biological way, biomass can be derived from living organisms like wood, fuel, etc. Biomass is commonly used to generate electricity and produce heat. Plant or animal matters are used in biomass for production of fiber and chemical.
Environment impacts: One of the most obvious usage of biomass we can see is the fossil fuel and the reduction of air pollution and acid rain. Biomass is also useful for our environment system because of the recycling atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, it can also be a negative sign, because the amount of CO2 removed by the biomass become less. But however, the terrestrial biomass is known as the largest source of removing the CO2 , we, however, decrease the amount of CO2 capacity of the Earth.
Economic impacts: As the biomass industry grew around the world, it brings a good result in economic growth. And also, the employment for agriculture, forestry, etc also increases. As the result, in the States, in July 2003, the amount of gas supplies increased from 21% in the past 5 years to 27% in 2003. So we can see that, biomass makes a big impacts to economic and environment of the earth.
In my opinion, I think biomass is a very useful source of energy, because of the increase of energy sources helped by biomass. I like this article because it shows me a new kind of energy that I haven’t known yet. And I hope biomass will help the Earth more in the future.
Picture sources:

Name: Nguyen Duy Toan (John)
Hour: Period 4


Biomass is the renewable energy that is really important and necessary for our life. First of all, biomass helps us to grow more trees and crops because it is an organic material that was produced from plant. Biomass happen when the plants absorb the sun’s energy named photosynthesis. The energy from the plant was passing through the animal and human body while they eat them. Secondly, when we burned the chemical energy in biomass, it is released as heat. These heats can become energy for making electricity, or provide heat to industries and homes. For example, wood waste and garbage. Finally, not only burning biomass to release heat but we also can convert them to other type of energy such as methane gas and transportation fuels. Therefore, biomass is one of the most important energy that not only saves but also helps our world become better and better every day. About my opinion, I think biomass is very interesting and useful energy to use because it is not the expensive energy and we can find or buy it anywhere even for free. Since this article helps me to understand many things about the energy that I never know before, I really like it.
From a Website:
U.S. Energy Information Administration "Developed by the Natiosal Energy Education Development(NEED) Project." U.S. Energy Information Administration(EIA) in 1998.

Name: Jo – Nguyen Cong Van Anh
Hour: 2nd

Geothermal energy summary paper
The center of the Earth is around 6000 degree Celsius, and this heat can be converted into energy. The core of the earth contains high temperature liquid rocks that were melted by the heat.
Since hundreds of years ago, people used hot spring, water that was heated by the earth for cooking and bathing. Nowadays, besides using the hot water and steam to bath and cook, they also use the host steam to create electricity. There are many geothermal power plants – the machine that using the steam and convert it into electricity. There are 3 types of Geothermal power plants:
Dry steam – the steam came directly from the well into the power plant
Flash steam – they use the reservoirs of water with high temperature. The water will then flows up and as it coming to the surface, the temperature decrease, some water was boiled into steam and that steam got separated from the water and was used to run the turbine/ generator. The left over water will be poured back into the well and continue to be heated up.
Binary cycle- They use hot water to boil the working fluid (made of easy to boil liquid). Then vaporized in the heat exchanger then used to turn the turbine
Geothermal energy is renewable because the earth constantly produces heat and the water is also renewable. We can get water from rain because the rain cycle never stops.
I think using the heat inside the earth to make electricity is clever, it’s a renewable source so we don’t have to worry about the running out of heat. I’m not quite sure how the binary cycle works, but I’ll find out later as I read more about geothermal energy.


Name: Natalie
Period: 3

Geothermal energy
Geothermal is one of the words from Greek which mean earth heat. This is one of the heat provides energy from nature and also called geothermal energy. This energy gave us warmth and power which can use without polluting our environment. Also, because of the reason without polluting the environment, then this energy will be better and more useful for people.
This energy is kind of heat that from the earth's core continuously flows outward. Then it transfer to surrounding of the layer rock call mantle. The temperatures and pressure was increasing higher, and higher depend on different conditions until it feels enough, then the mantle rock will melt and become magma. But because of the magma was less dense than the geovent.jpgsurrounding of the rock, so it made the magma slowly, slowing rising up, then moving slowly up toward to the crust of the earth, simultaneously it also carrying the heat from below. Also, sometimes, the magma heat nearby rock and water, sometimes it got really hot and it was as hot as 700 degrees F
In addition, some of this hot geothermal water can travels up. For example, hot rocks underground will produce steam when heat water. People usually drill holes down to the hot region, it made steams easy to come up, and then it used to drive the turbines. Because of that,
People can use the steam and hot water created inside the earth to heat buildings or produce electricity. It was useful depend on how much water we pump in, and how hot the rock start with and finally how hot the water get.
After do this articles, I feel really comfortable, happy and interesting about this article because finally I knew what geothermal energy is and how it work? Before I did not know about what Geothermal energy is? . Also, after this article, I still have a question stillgeothermal.jpg confuse me that “is Geothermal relate to the earthquake?” I have that question because I read it said water pump from the underground of the earth then steams come up then ect.

Name: Cher Vo
Period: 4
Grade: 10

external image What_is_geothermal_en_html_4983ad05.jpg

The article provides informatioz about geothermal, "Geo" means earth, and "thermal" means heat. Consequently, geothermal means earth-heat.
Geothermal energy has been existed as long as the Earth has presented. Geothermal energy is generated in the Earth’s core. The Earth has different layers: The core, the mantle, the crust. The core itself has two more layers: a solid iron core and an outer core, magma. Volcanoes are examples of geothermal energy. Magma comes close to the Earth’s surface, which is near to the edges of the plates (pieces of broken crust). The rocks and water absorb the heart from the magma underground. And magically, the deeper you go underground, the higher the temperature of the rocks as well as the water. Hot spring is also another interesting example of geothermal energy. Sometimes, water under the surface makes its way close to the hot rock and becomes hot water or steam. The boiling hot water can reach to 148 degrees Celsius. When this water comes up to the surface, it cracks through the earth and makes hot spring. Emerald Pool, Yellowstone National Park and Binh Chau, Ba Ria Vung Tau are the typical examples of hot spring, a product of geothermal energy. Another example of geothermal energy is geysers. Today, people use geothermal hot water in health spas or swimming pool; growing plants from below the ground (greenhouse). There are some other uses of geothermal energy such as: use stable ground or water temperatures near the Earth’s surface to control building temperatures above the ground; electricity generation power plants. There are three types of geothermal plants: dry steam plants, flash steam plants, and binary cycle power plants. Nowadays, people also use the Earth’s constant temperatures to heat and to cool. The temperatures above the ground, as we’ve known, change day after day, from day to day, from season to season. Geothermal heat plays an important role in keeping the buildings as a certain temperature. In specific, they transfer heat from the ground in winter to the buildings to warm them up as well as reverse the process in the summer to cool the buildings down. However, geothermal power plants do not burn fuel to generate the electricity. Therefore, their emission levels are very low. They only release about 1% or less of the CO2 emissions of a fossil fuel plant.
Personally, I think geothermal energy is very essential to our lives nowadays. It is a natural source of electricity and also a source of relaxing. It brings us hot springs as well as underground hot water and geysers. It also balances the temperature in buildings by transferring the water (heat) from the ground to the buildings and reverse. It is a useful natural source and also a perfect electricity source from the nature.

Sources:external image heatpump.jpg,what_is_geothermal_energy.html

Name: Angelina
Hour: 3
Date: March 24, 2010


Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy
In this article, the readers will gain some information about the geothermal energy as one of the best natural energies in the world with many advantages and few disadvantages.
People produce geothermal energy by digging the deep holes into the earth crusts and use its steams to generate the turbine to create the power. With many advantages, people consider the use of geothermal energy for their houses and their environment. The readers should know two following most significant advantages. The first one is the cleanness because that energy does not produce any pollution and does not contribute the greenhouse effects. Besides, the power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment. Secondly, for house, people do not need to spend so much money for fuel bills. In contrast, geothermal energy has few disadvantages. The big disadvantage is that there are not many places where can build a geothermal power station. Therefore, it costs a lot of money to survey the lands and build a geothermal power station. Next, a geothermal energy sometimes may “run out of steams” suddenly. The last disadvantage is some noxious gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to dispose of safely.
However, I still hope geothermal energy will make the big changes for the environment and people. This article is very terse so the readers can easily understand and think about this topic deeply.


“Advantages Of Geothermal Energy” Clean Energy Ideas, February© 2007 - 2009. Web. 17 March.2010.

“Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy” Clean Energy Ideas, February© 2007 - 2009. Web. 17 March.2010.

Clean Energy Ideas, February© 2007 - 2009. Web. 18 March.2010.

Clean Energy Ideas, February© 2007 - 2009. Web. 18 March.2010.